Seismic interpretation, regardless of whether for hydrocarbon investigation or geotechnical examinations, is the assurance of the geological significance of seismic data. It is uncommon that the correctness of an understanding can be learned, in light of the fact that the real topography is once in a while known in enough detail. Rather, the trial of a decent understanding is consistent with the entirety of the accessible information. In oil and gas exploration, seismic interpretation is set on finding an understanding that is generally great for hydrocarbon collection. Seismic interpretation is very useful for a geologist or a geophysicist to precisely interpret the oil-bearing layers from the seismic data. Seismic interpretation can be applied to any exploration or production stage. Seismic interpretation of hydrocarbon prediction can be applied for:
- depositional environment of reservoirs with marine fades and delta
- sedimentary rocks of reservoirs that are non-marine clastic rocks and carbonate rock.
- burial depths range from 300 m to 7000 m, and the minimum thickness of these reservoirs is over 8 m.
Seismic Interpretation and Oil and Gas Survey Companies
The seismic services market is very concentrated with the top 5 companies accounting for quite 70% of the market share. Some of the major companies include Schlumberger, CGGVeritas, Petroleum Geo-Service, TGS-NOPEC, and Halliburton Company. The industry giants involved in seismic interpretation and data acquisitions adopt multiple strategies to gain a competitive advantage over the other competitors in the market. The strategies adopted by the industry giants include M&A, joint ventures, contracts, agreements, and partnerships. These strategies help them to succeed in the seismic interpretation market. The worldwide seismic interpretation industry was USD 7.24 Billion out of 2016 and is assessed to develop at a CAGR of 4.24%, from 2017 to 2022. The utilization of seismic interpretation in shale gas investigation is expected to drive the market for seismic technology.
Seismic Interpretation in Hydrocarbon Exploration
The application of the seismic interpretation in hydrocarbon exploration has evolved well beyond its original emphasis on imaging of subsurface structure. Seismic interpretation is beneficial within the evaluation of all petroleum system elements including source, degree of source maturation, reservoir presence and quality, trap geometry, and seal capacity. Seismic interpretation is applied to the understanding of reservoir body geometry and the degree of stratigraphy. Acquisition of high-resolution 3D seismic data has greatly enhanced the ability to image steep dips, complex structures, and trapping configuration. Source rocks, degree of source rock maturity, and migration pathways are generally not detectable using seismic interpretation. It is sometimes possible to distinguish hydrocarbons from formation fluids. Therefore, in hydrocarbon exploration, the last word goal of seismic interpretation is typically to map potential reservoirs for closure.
Seismic Interpretation: Limitations
Performing seismic interpretation is not a fail-proof solution. The refining industry may be a highly regulated business, and data alone cannot guarantee results. Companies, therefore, should take care when handling seismic interpretations. They could lose millions during a failed oil expedition, after all. Geologists must understand, as well, the gravity of their findings which influence decisions. The best way to choose oil drilling operations is to figure with experienced geologists who have the newest equipment to work out the foremost accurate results. Despite the restrictions of seismic interpretation, one cannot deny that it’s had a particularly useful contribution to finding oil deposits. It allows a more efficient and accurate way of spotting oil deposits compared to other methods within the past. This is important, given the rapidly increasing need for petroleum and other products made up of it. By working with skilled geologists who can make accurate interpretations, oil companies can enjoy a reduced risk of losses, better supply, and better profits. They must turn to geologists or other expert professionals with innovative petrophysical analysis methods for improved and better results.
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